In total, shipping emissions represent around 2% of UK greenhouse gas emissions.

Emissions fell around 3% in 2013; this is in line with the average annual reduction of around 5% from 2009 to 2013.

In 2013 demand for UK shipping increased by 4%, suggesting that the reduction in emissions was due to other factors (e.g. falling ship speeds, improvements in fuel efficiency or changes in bunkering patterns).

In future, shipping emissions can be reduced through a combination of fuel efficiency improvements and use of biofuels. More ambitious policies, beyond those already agreed, will be required to unlock the full range of emissions reduction potential.

These policy approaches should be at the global or EU level, given the international nature of the industry. Until these are agreed, our recommendation is that an appropriate planning assumption for shipping is for emissions to be around one-third lower than 2010 levels in 2050.