8 terms:

Baseload demand

Part of total demand that is present throughout most the year, e.g. 90% of the hours of the year, and therefore can be met by capacity running continuously.


Intermittent technologies (i.e. offshore wind, onshore wind, marine, solar) are adjusted in this figure by the difference between their average capacity factor and the availability of non-intermittent plants (e.g. nuclear, CCS) in order to put plants on an equivalent GW basis. For example, assuming non-intermittent plants are available to generate for 90% of the year, and offshore wind is able to generate at its maximum rated capacity for 42% of the year (i.e. capacity factor), 1 GW of offshore wind is equivalent to (42%/90%) * 1 GW = 0.47 GW of baseload-equivalent capacity.

Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)

A vehicle that recieves all motive power from a battery.


A fuel derived from biomass and used to power vehicles (can be liquid or gas). Biofuels are commonly derived from cereal crops but can also be derived from other plant material, trees and even algae.

Biogenic CO2

Carbon dioxide that is exchanged between living organisms and the atmosphere on short timescales (up to a few years) and assumed to have no impact on climate change (e.g. through burning carbon sourced from materials such as food and paper/card waste).


Biological material that can be used as fuel or for industrial production. Includes solid biomass such as wood and plant and animal products, gases and liquids derived from biomass, industrial waste and municipal waste.


Pipeline quality methane of biological origin (effectively renewable natural gas), generally produced either by cleaning up the biogas that results from anaerobic digestion or via a 'methanation' process to produce methane from the synthesis gas resulting from biomass gasification

Bunker fuels

Fuels consumed for air and maritime transportation.