7 terms:

Demand-side response

Active management of demand that helps match the profile of demand with supply, and reduce the requirement for capacity at peak periods. For example, charging electric vehicles overnight when demand is low, or when output from intermittent renewables (e.g. wind) is high.

Departing / arriving flights

Departing flights are those that take off from a UK airport. Arriving flights are those that arrive at UK airports. To avoid double-counting, emissions should be measured either from all-departing or all-arriving flights only.

Devolved administrations

The national authorities of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Discount rate

The rate at which the valuation of future costs and benefits decline. The social discount rate (3.5%) represents that society prefers consumption now over the future _ so £1.035 next year is equivalent to £1 today. It reflects (a) pure time preference for consumption now over having to wait; (b) the lower value of the extra £1 as incomes in the future grow; (c) a small risk of catastrophe that means future benefits might never be enjoyed. Discount rates in the private sector generally reflect the real cost of raising capital, or the real interest rate at which consumers can borrow.

Display Energy Certificate (DEC)

The certificate shows the actual energy usage of a building and must be produced every year for public buildings larger than 1,000 square metres.

Domestic Action budget

Our proposed Domestic Action budget (for 2023-27) reflects our assessment of feasible abatement in the UK through the 2020s that is cost-effective and/or necessary on the path to 2050. It should be legislated in the first instance, with the aim to deliver it through domestic emissions reduction (i.e. without relying on credits).


The group of components in a motor vehicle that generate power and deliver it to the road surface