14 terms:


Process in which the solid energy-containing materials are subjected to high temperatures in the presence of small amounts of oxygen. Instead of full combustion, this breaks down the material into an energy-rich 'synthesis gas', which typically contains a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and various other hydrocarbons. This mixture can then be used to generate electricity and/or heat or to produce other forms of energy such as methane, biodiesel (via the Fischer-Tropsch process) or pure hydrogen

Generic Design Assessment (GDA)

Generic Design Assessment (GDA), also known as pre-licensing, is the process of ensuring that the technical aspects of designs for nuclear power plants are safe ahead of site-specific license applications.

Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy exploits heat contained in or near the earthÕs crust, either for electricity production or to extract usable heat

Global Offer budget

Our Global Offer budget (for 2023-2027) represents an indicative UK contribution to a global pathway cosistent with our climate objective. It shows that the UK should be prepared to go beyond the Domestic Action budget in the context of a global deal, with the option to deliver the extra effort through credit purchase or increased domestic effort.

Global Warming Potential (GWP)

The standard metric used to calculate CO2-equivalent emissions of different greenhouse gases in carbon budgets and the Kyoto Protocol. GWP measures the total radiative forcing over a given period (usually 100 years) after a pulse emission, relative to that from the same mass of CO2.


DECC's Global Carbon Finance model, developed to look at the costs to different countries of moving to a low-carbon global economy, and the international financial flows and implied carbon prices this might generate.

Grazing returns

Excreta (dung and urine) from livestock kept outdoors (mainly cattle and sheep) deposited directly on land as the animal grazes and not subject to management.

Green Deal

The Green Deal is a new financial mechanism enabled through the Energy Act 2011. It eliminates the need to pay upfront for energy efficiency measures in buildings and instead allows the costs to be paid back through savings on the electricity bill. The Green Deal charge is attached to the property, not the owner.

Green Investment Bank (GIB)

The Green Investment Bank has been set up by the UK Government under the Companies Act to provide financial solutions to accelerate private sector investment in the green economy. It will initially be capitalised with £3 billion.

Greenhouse Gas (GHG)

Any atmospheric gas which absorbs thermal radiation emitted by the Earth's surface. This traps heat in the atmosphere and keeps the surface at a warmer temperature than would otherwise be possible.

Gross disposable annual household income

The amount of money available to households after taxes, National Insurance, pension contributions and interest have been paid.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

A measure of the total economic activity occurring in the UK.

Gross Value Added (GVA)

The difference between output and intermediate consumption for any given sector/industry.


A gigatonne (1,000 million tonnes).