Induced cirrus cloud
A high-altitude cloud of ice crystals caused from the spreading of aircraft contrails, or triggered by aerosol emissions from aircraft exhaust. Like contrails they have a significant warming effect on surface temperatures but this only lasts up to a few hours.
Infrastructure Planning Commission
A new body established by the Planning Act (2008) to take decisions on planning applications for major infrastructure projects
As proposed in our 2008 report, the Intended budget (2008-2022) corresponds to the UK share of an EU 30% 2020 target. We recommended it should be enacted in the context of a global deal to reduce emissions.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The IPCC was formed in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). It is designed to assess the latest scientific, technical and socio-economic literature on climate change in a way which is neutral with respect to policy.
As proposed in our 2008 report, the Interim budget corresponds to the UK share of an EU 20% 2020 target. This is the current set of legislated budgets to 2022.
If a source of energy is intermittent, it is not available continuously or potentially 'on demand' (i.e. despatchable). Many forms of renewable energy are deemed intermittent as they are driven by availability of natural resources, which may be predictable (e.g. tidal) but outside direct control - (e.g. the ebb and flow of tides). Output from some intermittent renewables may be difficult to predict - e.g. wind, which is subject to forecasting error.
International Air Transport Association (IATA)
The international industry trade group for airlines.
International aviation and shipping
Journeys by air or sea where one of the departure/destination points is within the UK and the other is outside.
International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)
A specialised agency of the United Nations, responsible for regulating international civil aviation.
International Maritime Organisation (IMO)
A specialised agency of the United Nations, responsible for regulating the maritime industry.
Feed additives that can improve the performance of cattle. They are currently banned in the EU.