A measure of the atmospheric warming or cooling effect of various climate drivers such as solar radiation, greenhouse gas concentrations, or volcanic activity. Radiative forcing is expressed in units of Watts per square metre (Wm-2) and is usually taken as a global average value in a given year, relative to the balance during pre-Industrial times.
Real household disposable income
The amount of income in real terms available to households after taxes, National Insurance, pension contributions and interest have been paid.
Process that converts hydrocarbons such as methane into a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This mixture can then be used to produce other forms of energy such as biodiesel (via the Fischer-Tropsch process) or pure hydrogen. Around 95% of global production of industrial hydrogen is produced via reforming of hydrocarbons
Renewable Energy Directive (RED)
A European directive that sets targets for all member states, such that the EU will reach a 20% share of energy from renewable sources by 2020 and a 10% share of renewable energy specifically in the transport sector.
Renewable Energy Strategy (RES)
Government plan to meet the European target of 15% of energy (including electricity, heat and transport) from renewable sources by 2020.
Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI)
A feed-in-tariff type mechanism to provide long-term financial support to producers of renewable heat.
Energy resources derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. They include geothermal, solar, wind, tide, wave, hydropower, biomass and biofuels.
Renewables Obligation Certificate (ROC)
A certificate issued to an accredited electricity generator for eligible renewable electricity generated within the UK.
Resistive electric heating
Resistive electric heaters produce heat by passing an electric current through a resistance (e.g. a coil or wire) that impedes the current. Examples of resistive electric heaters are storage heaters and electric boilers.
Payments for goods or services, based on the economic cost of the elements or inputs used _ for example, the cost of materials, salaries. Resource costs do not include distortions such as taxes or subsidies, which are transfers within the economy, and welfare costs (e.g. a reduction in comfort levels as a result of turning down the thermostat to save heating fuel).