2023 Progress Report
to Parliament

This statutory report provides a comprehensive overview of the
UK Government’s progress to date in reducing emissions.

28 June 2023

Type of publication:
Progress reports

Country focus:

Carbon budgets, targets and progress

This year saw the release of new detail on the Government’s plans for Net Zero with the publication of the Carbon Budget Delivery Plan (CBDP) prompted by last year’s High Court judgement. But policy development continues to be too slow and our assessment of the CBDP has raised new concerns. Despite new detail from Government, our confidence in the UK meeting its medium-term targets has decreased in the past year. The increased transparency embodied in the CBDP is welcome, but a key opportunity to raise the overall pace of delivery has been missed.

3. Key messages

Our key messages are:

  • A lack of urgency. While the policy framework has continued to develop over the past year, this is not happening at the required pace for future targets.
  • Stay firm on existing commitments and move to delivery. The Government has made a number of strong commitments, these must be restated and moved as swiftly as possible towards delivery.
  • Retake a clear leadership role internationally. The UK will need to regain its international climate leadership.
  • Immediate priority actions and policies. Action is needed in a range of areas to deliver on the Government’s emissions pathway.
  • Develop demand-side and land use policies. The Government’s current strategy has considerable delivery risks due to its over-reliance on specific technological solutions, some of which have not yet been deployed at scale.
  • Empower and inform households and communities to make low-carbon choices. Despite some positive steps to provide households with advice on reducing energy use in the last year, a coherent public engagement strategy on climate action is long overdue.
  • Planning policy needs radical reform to support Net Zero. The planning system must have an overarching requirement that all planning decisions must be taken giving full regard to the imperative of Net Zero.
  • Expansion of fossil fuel production is not in line with Net Zero. As well as pushing forward strongly with new low-carbon industries, Net Zero also makes it necessary to move away from high-carbon developments.
  • The need for a framework to manage airport capacity. There has been continued airport expansion in recent years, counter to our assessment that there should be no net airport expansion across the UK.

4. Recommendations to Government

Table 1
Recommendations - Progress in reducing emissions: 2023 Report to Parliament
IDRecommendationTimingPriorityPrimary responsibilitySupporting actorsSector(s)Topic
R2023-102Publish the land use framework. Set out how this feeds into a wider agriculture and land use strategy that brings together how land can deliver its multiple functions including: reducing emissions and sequestering carbon, adapting to climate change, food security, biodiversity, domestic biomass production and wider environmental goals. The strategy must clearly outline the relationships and interactions with other relevant strategies and action plans across the UK, be spatially and temporally targeted, and aligned with action in the devolved administrations.Q3 2023Priority (UK)DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useAgriculture and land use strategy
R2023-171Implement a comprehensive delivery mechanism to address degraded peatland and extend current restoration ambition set out by the UK government and the devolved administrations beyond existing timeframes, including through addressing barriers to increasing capacity. Peat restoration targets include the need to remove all low-productive trees (i.e. less than YC8) from peatland (equivalent to 16,000 hectares by 2025), and restore all peat extraction sites by 2035 (equivalent to 50,000 hectares by 2025).2024Priority (UK)DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land usePeatlands
R2023-192Ensure that funding and support are set at the correct level to meet the UK Government afforestation target of 30,000 hectares per year by 2025, and illustrative Net Zero Strategy targets of 40,000 hectares and 50,000 hectares by 2030 and 2035 respectively. Further clarity is required regarding funding beyond 2025. Support for delivery of new woodland creation should integrate with nature and adaptation objectives, and also address contractor availability, capacity to process funding applications, and advice for farmers to transition to woodland management approaches.2023Priority (UK)DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useTrees and woodland
R2023-037No airport expansions should proceed until a UK-wide capacity management framework is in place to annually assess and, if required, control sector GHG emissions and non-CO2 effects. A framework should be developed by DfT in cooperation with the Welsh, Scottish and Northern Irish Governments over the next 12 months and should be operational by the end of 2024. After a framework is developed, there should be no net airport expansion unless the carbon-intensity of aviation is outperforming the Government's emissions reduction pathway and can accommodate the additional demand.H1 2024Priority (UK)DfTAviationDemand
R2022-073Respond to the 2020 consultation by finalising and implementing plans to require privately rented homes in England and Wales to reach EPC C by 2028 (as the Government committed to in autumn 2021).2022Priority (UK)DESNZBuildingsEnergy efficiency
R2022-072Finalise and ensure the timely implementation of plans to prohibit fossil fuel boiler replacements in off-gas grid buildings from 2026 (2024 for large non-residential buildings). Confirm the proposed regulatory mechanism for phasing out fossil fuel boilers, and clarify whether the required powers are devolved or reserved. 2022Priority (UK)DESNZBuildingsLow-carbon heat
R2023-190Narrow the scope of the strategic decision prior to 2026 by: publicly affirming that electrical heat is the default option in all new buildings and existing properties off the gas grid; prohibiting connections to the gas grid for new buildings from 2025; setting out clear routes for other properties or areas where electrification or heat networks represent low-regret options; and clarifying the Government’s position on the economy-wide priority of use-cases for hydrogen – in particular its potential to help manage peak demands for both heat and electricity, and its role in hybrid heating systems.2023Priority (UK)DESNZBuildingsLow-carbon heat
R2023-165Publish guidance for businesses on what activities it is appropriate to 'offset' and when. This guidance should include confirmation that a business can only accurately use carbon credits to claim to be 'Net Zero' once nearly all emissions are reduced and the remaining are neutralised by high-quality permanent removals. Formalise this by: establishing 'Net Zero' as a statutory definition; drawing on consumer protection law or advertising standard rules to ensure businesses don't claim 'Net Zero' based on an inappropriate reliance on 'offsetting'; and setting out in UK Environmental Reporting Guidelines and the Net Zero Transition Plan Standard a requirement for businesses to disclose why carbon credits are used rather than direct emissions reduction in net emissions claims. 2024Priority (UK)DESNZDefra; HMTCross-cuttingBusiness
R2022-200As part of reforms to electricity pricing, remove legacy policy costs associated with the historical deployment of less-mature low-carbon electricity generation from electricity prices. The rebalancing of policy costs should remove market distortions, and manage any adverse distributional impacts of a 'polluter pays' approach.2022Priority (UK)HMTDESNZCross-cuttingFair funding and affordability
R2022-119Develop and begin to implement alternative options to address the range of risks to meeting the NDC and carbon budgets. These should broaden the set of emissions reductions pursued, in particular by implementing policies aiming to empower the public to make green choices and stating clearly how they will contribute to emissions reduction. The timeline for implementing the plans should consider the time it takes policies to take effect.Q1 2023Priority (UK)DESNZCross-cuttingGovernance
R2023-155Review and update the National Planning Policy Framework to ensure that Net Zero outcomes are consistently prioritised through the planning system, making clear that these should work in conjunction with, rather than being over-ridden by, other outcomes such as development viability. 2023Priority (UK)DLUHCCross-cuttingGovernance
R2023-162Empower people to make green choices by communicating the most impactful ways to reduce emissions, such as changing car travel, home energy use and dietary behaviours and reducing air travel, and support people to make these choices including through regulation and incentives. Government should lead by example by visibly adopting these green choices.2024Priority (UK)DESNZCross-cuttingPublic engagement
R2022-128Publish an evidence-based Action Plan for Net Zero Skills that includes a comprehensive assessment of when, where, and in which sectors there will be skills gaps specific to Net Zero. This should include consideration of particular barriers to inclusive and accessible labour market entry into occupations needed for the transition and Government plans for action on the skills system to facilitate entry into these occupations.
2022Priority (UK)DESNZDfE; DWP; DLUHC; Home OfficeCross-cuttingWorkers and skills
R2023-176Set out a clear process and governance framework for delivering credible, coordinated energy planning across local, regional and national levels. This should include guidance on responsibilities for producing, feeding into and implementing plans at each level (e.g. clarifying the respective roles of local authorities, Ofgem, the Future System Operator, network operators and the Government among others); their scope and the decisions to be made at each level; and a required methodology and standardised assumptions framework. This should include providing appropriate support and funding for delivery, ensure that proposals complement existing initiatives (e.g. on heat network zoning) and put in place processes for coordinating across boundaries and incorporating meaningful public engagement into decision-making.Q1 2024Priority (UK)DESNZDLUHC; Scotland; Wales; N. IrelandCross-cutting; Buildings; Electricity supplyGovernance
R2023-129Create a Minister-led infrastructure delivery group, advised by the new Electricity Networks Commissioner, to ensure enabling initiatives for energy infrastructure build are taken forward at pace and necessary policy changes are implemented across the UK, to deliver a decarbonised and resilient power system by 2035. This should bring together key senior parties in DESNZ, Ofgem, Defra, DLUHC, the Scottish and Welsh Governments, the Future System Operator and asset owners, to deliver necessary policy changes and monitor progress across the initiatives so that swift action can be taken where required to expedite progress. Priorities include overhauling planning and consenting (with strategically important projects prioritised); adequately resourcing regulatory, planning and environmental consenting bodies; reforming the connections process; driving strategic investment; and ensuring the necessary strategic planning and skills/supply chain development is taking place.2023Priority (UK)DESNZOfgem; Defra; DLUHC; Scotland; Wales; FSO; Electricity Networks CommissionerElectricity supplyNetworks; Governance
R2023-138Publish a comprehensive long-term strategy for the delivery of a decarbonised, resilient, power system by 2035. This should comprise a portfolio approach to developing the full range of low-carbon flexibility options, including demand flexibility, storage, hydrogen, gas CCS and interconnection capacity. It should set out how the low-carbon flexibility required to replace unabated gas will be delivered (12-20 GW of low-carbon dispatchable capacity by 2035), as well as clarifying any minimal residual role unabated gas is expected to play by 2035 (up to around 2% of annual electricity production) and the strategy for unabated gas phase-out. It should cover the strategic decisions required, the milestones and timeline for delivery and the governance and oversight arrangements. It must set out plans and contingencies for addressing key risks on a co-ordinated basis (e.g. network development and connections, planning and consenting, CCS, hydrogen and nuclear).2023Priority (UK)DESNZElectricity supplyStrategy
R2023-126Clarify urgently and formalise the institutional responsibilities of the FSO, Ofgem and Ministers, for strategic planning and delivery of a decarbonised, resilient energy system. As part of this, Ofgem’s objectives and duties must be updated to drive explicitly the delivery of the statutory Net Zero target, and to ensure climate and weather resilience. In addition to its Net Zero objective, the FSO must have responsibility for ensuring weather and climate resilience through its strategic planning role. The critical role of strategic investment in delivering these outcomes must be recognised, with appropriate mandates and powers for Ofgem and the FSO. The formalisation of responsibilities should be implemented through the Energy Bill and revisions to the Strategy and Policy Statement. As part of the phased approach to the implementation of the FSO, expanding the remit with respect to hydrogen should be considered as a priority. 2023Priority (UK)DESNZOfgem; FSOElectricity supply; Fuel supplyNetworks
R2023-128Identify a set of low-regret electricity and hydrogen infrastructure investments that can proceed now. Either prior to, or as part of publication of the cross-sectoral infrastructure strategy, identify on a whole system and economy-wide basis which areas are unlikely to be suitable for hydrogen (such that electrification and alternatives can be progressed), alongside potential candidate areas for hydrogen. This should be used to inform a set of low-regret investments that can proceed immediately.2024Priority (UK)DESNZFSOElectricity supply; Fuel supply; Cross-cuttingNetworks
R2022-207Publish a proposal on the business model for deployment of large-scale (>1 MtCO2/year) engineered removals.Q1 2023Priority (UK)DESNZEngineered removalsFunding
R2023-092Ensure that planning frameworks and guidance across the UK support a clear presumption against new consents for coal production. New coal extraction, whether in new mines or through the extension of existing infrastructure, should only be permitted for safe decommissioning, or where firm policy can be demonstrated to require the coal produced to be used (domestically or internationally) in a way that is compatible with Net Zero pathways (e.g. with at least 95% CO2 capture and storage). Planning Frameworks should reflect the declining role of coal in the context of binding UK and international GHG emissions targets. At present local plans are still required to proactively identify sites for future coal extraction. This practice is outdated and encourages new coal development. This practice should be ended immediately. 2023Priority (UK)DLUHCScotland; Wales; N. Ireland; DESNZFuel supplyFossil fuel supply
R2023-093Strengthen and clarify the tests in place for allowing any further exploration and extraction of oil and gas. Stringent tests, in line with the advice in our 2022 oil and gas letter, should be applied at each stage of the licensing and consenting process. These tests should be underpinned by a presumption against exploration and tighter limits on production, be assessed against more ambitious decarbonisation targets (well beyond the 50% target set out in the North Sea Transition Deal), and make use of the best available technology to minimise emissions associated with production. The criteria for approval, including with regard to decarbonisation targets, should be set out clearly and transparently. 2023Priority (UK)DESNZNSTA; OPRED; DLUHCFuel supplyFossil fuel supply
R2023-080Develop policies for industrial electrification that address general barriers such as investment constraints, as well as specific barriers for different industrial sub-sectors. H1 2024Priority (UK)DESNZIndustryElectrification
R2022-241Create clear incentives for manufacturing facilities not currently covered by the UK ETS to decarbonise.Q1 2023Priority (UK)DESNZHMTIndustryFuel switching
R2023-088Publish a strategy and timeline for the decarbonisation of the iron and steel industry in line with the Carbon Budget Delivery Plan.Q1 2024Priority (UK)DBTDESNZIndustrySteel
R2023-111Announce a Secretary of State-level Climate Envoy that acts as the ministerial Head of Delegation before the 2023 UN General Assembly.Q3 2023Priority (UK)DESNZInternationalUK Climate Envoy
R2022-272Confirm the details of the ZEV mandate in regulation. As set out in the consultation, this should impose targets on manufacturers that are at least as ambitious as those in the Transport Decarbonisation Plan and should drive consistent growth in sales of EV cars and vans through the 2020s to meet the 2030 phase-out date.Q1 2023Priority (UK)DfTScotland; Wales; N. IrelandSurface transportElectric cars and vans
R2023-073Implement a whole-systems approach to address Energy from Waste (EfW) emissions, including setting out the implications of rising EfW use for waste decarbonisation and confirming plans to include EfW within the UK ETS. A moratorium on additional EfW capacity should be introduced subject to a review of capacity needs and how they align with Government emissions pathways. Further clarity is also needed on how decisions on allowing further EfW plants will be made.H1 2024Priority (UK)DESNZDefraWasteEnergy from Waste / Incineration
R2023-070Improve monitoring and reporting of the national extent and condition of hedgerows to track delivery against the Government's commitment to restore and create these boundary features. Govenment should also set a target and take steps to monitor and report the delivery of agroforestry measures.2024DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useAgroforestry and hedgerows
R2022-031Set incentives to support agroforestry and hedgerows on UK farms. Plant trees on 2% of farmland by 2025 while maintaining its primary use, rising to 5% by 2035, and extend hedgerows by 20% by 2035 and better manage existing hedgerows.Q3 2023DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useAgroforestry and hedgerows
R2023-101Adopt in UK legislation existing baseline land management rules (e.g. cross compliance rules) which offer mitigation benefit. This is to ensure sustainable land management approaches are adhered to irrespective of whether voluntary schemes (e.g. ELMs) are being accessed.2024DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useCAP reform
R2022-028Put in place robust frameworks for monitoring, reporting and verification of post-CAP farm subsidies and agriculture environment schemes to assess their effectiveness in delivering their environmental objectives, including for climate change mitigation and adaptation.Q1 2023DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useCAP reform
R2022-035Set out how reform of agricultural subsidies in England under the new Environmental Land Management scheme will be targeted through the "public money for public goods" approach, both regionally and temporally, to incentivise land managers to adopt measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions alongside delivery for food security, biodiversity and other environmental goals.OngoingDefraAgriculture & land useCAP reform
R2023-103The UK Government and devolved administrations should build on their current advice and guidance approaches and set out their understanding on how the transition to Net Zero in the agriculture and land use sectors will affect employment in these sectors. This should include a timeframe of change and the scale of impact, to inform how pathway will be managed to be fair and equitable. New skills, training and advice should be made widely available to facilitate the transition, increase capacity and enable farmers to make changes on the land they manage, while supporting the achievement of environmental targets in these sectors.2024DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useCAP reform
R2022-003Produce a roadmap to inclusion of saltmarsh and seagrass in the greenhouse gas inventory, and specify a suggested level of inclusion (i.e. Tier 1, 2 or 3), the additional data required to facilitate this, and an indicative timescale for inclusion.2024DESNZDefraAgriculture & land useCoastal and marine
R2022-037Introduce policy to support the reduction of food waste at the farm, supply chain and household levels. Food-waste reduction, and its implications, should also be integrated into the recommended Net Zero delivery strategy for the agriculture and land use sectors, as well as in plans for the waste sector.Q1 2024DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useDiet and demand
R2022-027Set out how the objective in the Government Food Strategy to ‘deliver a sustainable, nature positive, affordable food system’ will be achieved, including the mechanisms to address the interaction between food systems and other land use needs, climate, nature, and integrated alongside a public shift towards low-carbon diets.Q1 2023DefraAgriculture & land useDiet and demand
R2022-036Take low-cost, low-regret actions to encourage a 20% shift away from all meat by 2030, rising to 35% by 2050, and a 20% shift from dairy products by 2030, demonstrating leadership in the public sector whilst improving health.2022DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useDiet and demand
R2023-065Build on current research and innovation funding streams, such as the Farming Innovation Programme, to specifically target measures that aim to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions via productivity improvements.Q3 2023DefraAgriculture & land useFarming practices
R2022-006Continue to support research and development into low-carbon farming practices, including behavioural, innovation and productivity measures. The risk of a high dependency on innovation and technology to meet GHG emission reductions should be assessed, and integrated with demand-side measures such as diet change and waste reduction.2023DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useFarming practices
R2023-100Government should help facilitate conditions that stimulate investment to contribute to emissions reduction in the agricultural and land use sectors, including habitat creation and restoration, through promoting policy stability and good governance to attract private investment. This will include detail on how private funding will be aligned with public subsidies, and promote the use of existing verifiable standards (such as the Woodland Carbon Code and Peatland Code) whilst also considering the need to develop new ones.H1 2024DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useFinance
R2022-045Develop a comprehensive plan to increase the production and use of UK-sourced timber and support the long-term economic viability of domestic woodlands.Q1 2024DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useForestry
R2022-004As part of strengthening the regulatory baseline, extend coverage of Nitrate Vulnerable Zones across all of the UK in order to promote best practice in management of inorganic fertilisers and organic manure and slurry.2024DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useLow-carbon farming
R2023-061As part of strengthening the regulatory baseline, introduce regulations under the Clean Air Strategy to reduce enteric methane emissions, specifically under environmental permitting to the dairy and intensive beef sectors.2024DefraAgriculture & land useLow-carbon farming
R2023-062Mandate the addition of methane-inhibiting additives to feed products for UK beef and dairy systems.2025DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useLow-carbon farming
R2022-029Set in place action to overcome financial barriers that prevent take-up and innovation in low-carbon farming practices. This should include management incentives under the ELM scheme and approaches set by devolved administrations, grants for capital items and infrastructure, and support for research and development.OngoingDefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useLow-carbon farming
R2023-063Set out a consistent and robust approach to support farmers to carry out on-farm monitoring, reporting and verification of agricultural and land-based GHG emissions. This should include support to interpret and take action to deliver emissions reduction based on the results.2024DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useLow-carbon farming
R2022-023Provide support to tenant farmers to overcome contractual issues that restrict the long-term commitment and investment required to reduce emissions and sequester carbon on the land they manage.Q1 2024DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useNon-financial barriers
R2022-030Put in place action to overcome non-financial barriers that prevent adoption of low-carbon farming measures and land-use change (such as forestry, peatland restoration, establishment of agroforestry and biomass crops) to deliver emission reduction and carbon benefits. These include streamlining application processes and providing support for skills, training, and knowledge exchange in order to provide confidence to farmers to take up new measures.OngoingDefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useNon-financial barriers
R2022-010Ensure incentives are set at the correct level to set a trajectory to achieve 58% of peatland restored by 2035, and 79% under restoration by 2050. All upland peat should be under restoration management by 2045. 2024DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land usePeatlands
R2023-191Extend the policy requiring a licence for burning management to cover all protected peatlands, as a step towards limiting its use on all peat soils. Land managers wishing to use burning management must comply with the relevant standards (such as the Heather and Grass Burning Regulations 2021 in England and the Muirburn Code in Scotland), demonstrating its necessity in achieving stated land-use outcomes as well setting restoration plans.H1 2024DefraScotlandAgriculture & land usePeatlands
R2022-021Introduce the proposed regulations to ban the retail sale of peat in horticulture in England and Wales by 2024. Use by the horticultural sector should also end in 2024, earlier than the currently proposed 2028. Government must work with the horticultural industry achieve this.2024DefraWalesAgriculture & land usePeatlands
R2023-068Promote consistent annual reporting of national peatland restoration action across the UK, ensuring that data are comparable and openly accessible.2024DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land usePeatlands
R2022-032Set out clear timeframes to end domestic and industrial peat extraction across the UK. Provide a mechanism to ensure the peat-extraction industries restore extraction sites to protect the peat resource.Q1 2023DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land usePeatlands
R2022-007Develop the option of applying minimum environmental standards to imports of selected agricultural products, either for application via due diligence or at the border.Q1 2023DefraFCDO; DBTAgriculture & land useTrade and consumption emissions
R2022-012Implement Government's proposed policy on due diligence of forest-risk commodities and develop a further policy to remove unsustainable legal deforestation from UK supply chains that avoids the risk of resource shuffling.Q1 2023DefraAgriculture & land useTrade and consumption emissions
R2022-013Improve data collection and standardise methodologies for monitoring of, and reporting on, international land use emissions that arise from UK consumption, particularly from deforestation. The Government should aim to report on these international emissions from deforestation on an annual basis from 2023. This may build on the experimental statistic of the Joint Nature Conservation Committee. 2023DefraONSAgriculture & land useTrade and consumption emissions
R2022-039Work with the forestry sector and government agencies to support UK tree nurseries to increase domestic production of trees to meet the planting ambition and reduce reliance on imports, along with the associated risks of pests and disease.2023DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandAgriculture & land useTrees and woodland
R2022-044The Biomass Strategy should set out the role that sustainable domestic production of perennial energy crops and short rotation coppice will play to contribute towards Net Zero. The strategy should align with the recommended development of a Government agriculture and land use strategy and outline how land for UK biomass and forestry will be freed up. This should include specific targets to increase the area growing energy crops across the UK to 6,000 hectares per year by 2025, and 30,000 hectares per year by 2035.2022DefraDESNZAgriculture & land use; Fuel supplyBiomass
R2022-050Continue innovation and funding for aircraft efficiency measures, hybrid, full electric and hydrogen aircraft development and airspace modernisation.OngoingDfTAviationCross cutting
R2022-054Use the ICAO General Assembly to protect, strengthen and extend Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) such that all residual emissions in 2050 are covered by near-permanent, sustainable greenhouse gas removals. Commit to increasing the number of airlines opting in and, if strengthening it is not possible, push for an additional policy for countries willing and able to commit to a higher standard of carbon removal for aviation than exists through CORSIA.Q3 2022DfTAviationCross-cutting
R2022-057Demand-mitigation measures should be used to address price imbalances between aviation and low-emission forms of surface transport (e.g. rail travel). Taxes should send clearer signals to consumers on the high emissions cost of flying (e.g. by reversing the 2021 cut in Air Passenger Duty). Fair funding mechanisms should be used to ensure alternatives are affordable (e.g. invest in low-emission alternatives for journeys where domestic flights are faster/cheaper than surface transport).2023HMTDfTAviationDemand
R2022-058Fiscal policy should be used (e.g. taxation, quotas or a frequent flyer levy), alongside improvements in broadband, to embed positive behaviours that have arisen during the pandemic, replacing business travel with videoconferencing and online collaboration. The price of flying should be raised to the point that it acts as an effective signal to consumers that aviation has high emissions costs.2022HMTDfTAviationDemand
R2023-117Start to track the carbon-intensity of, and demand for, different aviation ticket types (e.g. business, first class, economy class), and demand for private flying, to help understand how demand-side measures could reduce the carbon intensity of flying.2024DfTAviationDemand
R2023-116Confirm when the Jet Zero Strategy will undergo its first five-yearly review and begin work in 2023 to understand what policy framework or mechanism would need to be in place for additional measures within the sector to be rapidly deployed in the late-2020s if the Government is not on track to meet its aviation pathway. These measures could include demand reduction policies. 2024DfTAviationEfficiencies
R2022-049Continue to monitor seat occupancy over the period to 2027, during recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, to ensure that the sector either returns to prior occupancy levels or routes are adjusted to account for low occupancy rates. Consider regulating aircraft occupancy standards if the trends do not return to pre-pandemic levels by 2024. OngoingDfTAviationEfficiencies
R2022-053Start monitoring non-CO2 effects of aviation - including through the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) for eligible aeroplane operators - and set a minimum goal of no further additional warming after 2050 from non-CO2 effects, research mitigation options and consider how best to tackle non-CO2 effects alongside UK climate targets without increasing CO2 emissions.2023DfTAviationNon-CO2 emissions
R2022-048Commit to a policy on the UK ETS/Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) interaction as soon as possible, ensuring it is sufficiently environmentally stringent and that no credits from CORSIA are used for flights currently covered by the UK ETS unless and until they can satisfy strict eligibility criteria (equivalence, additionality, permanence, sustainability). The interaction should avoid double-compliance. 2023DfTAviationOffsets and removals
R2023-104Identify current and future skill gaps in the aviation workforce and address them to ensure the right skills are developed and available in the sector to help achieve aviation decarbonisation.OngoingDfTDfEAviationSkills
R2023-119Build contingency measures into the Sustainable Aviation Fuel Mandate to prepare for the possibility of constrained domestic and global Sustainable Aviation Fuel feedstock and import supply throughout the 2020s and 2030s that does not overly rely on the SAF mandate buy-out mechanism.2024DfTAviationSustainable aviation fuel
R2022-051Continue innovation and show support for sustainable aviation fuel technologies, including research into non-CO2 effects. Also, estimate the impact of different sustainable aviation fuel options on other countries' emissions and the opportunity costs for UK land use. OngoingDfTAviationSustainable aviation fuel
R2022-046Ensure the Sustainable Aviation Fuel Mandate is legislated in time for it to become operational by the start of 2025, with a strong set of criteria for the fuels included in the mandate. 2024DfTAviationSustainable aviation fuel
R2023-118The Sustainable Aviation Fuel mandate should include provisions to ensure that eligible fuels do not have a harmful non-CO2 impact relative to conventional jet fuel and that the minimum GHG emissions saving threshold is sufficiently ambitious to ensure the Government's aviation emissions reduction trajectory is reached. The threshold should be increased over time to ensure high future emissions savings while upholding stringent fuel eligibility standards.2024DfTAviationSustainable aviation fuel
R2022-056Without allowing it to delay the implementation of the Sustainable Aviation Fuel Mandate, consider whether including high-quality greenhouse gas removals into the mandate could be a more effective way of reducing emissions for the industry, particularly in the short term (e.g. up to 2030), before more scalable forms of SAF (e.g. synthetic fuels) are widely commercially available.2024DfTAviationSustainable aviation fuel
R2023-120Outline the role zero-emission aircraft will play in the Government's aviation decarbonisation pathway after 2030 and how Government will provide an enabling environment (regulation, infrastructure, public acceptance) for these new technologies. 2024DfTAviationZero emission aircraft
R2023-121Complete legislative changes for inclusion in the Carbon Budgets of international aviation and shipping from the Sixth Carbon Budget onwards.2024DESNZAviation; ShippingLegislation
R2022-075Develop and consult on policies for delivering energy efficiency and low-carbon heat in owner-occupied commercial buildings, including proposals to require a minimum EPC rating. 2023DESNZBuildingsCommercial buildings
R2022-077Develop plans to encourage SMEs to invest in energy efficiency measures, building on the Government’s call for evidence, commissioned research, and BASEE programme. Publish the evaluation of the BASEE programme and funded projects.2022DESNZBuildingsCommercial buildings
R2022-076Implement the performance-based rating scheme for offices and publish timelines for other building types, outlining how timelines correspond to the expected emissions reduction trajectory of commercial buildings in the 2020s. 2022DESNZBuildingsCommercial buildings
R2022-065Develop and publish new policies (with a clear implementation timeline) to ensure that owner-occupied homes reach a minimum energy performance of EPC C by 2035, through incentives or regulation. This should go beyond voluntary standards for mortgage lenders, and could include requirements at the point of sale, tax incentives, and/or a mandatory standards for mortgage lenders.H1 2023DESNZBuildingsEnergy efficiency
R2023-187Respond to the 2021 consultation by finalising and implementing plans for minimum energy efficiency standards for the non-domestic private rented sector.2023DESNZBuildingsEnergy efficiency
R2022-074Set a long-term regulatory standard for social homes to reach EPC C by 2028 and finalise policy plans and a delivery mechanism.2023DESNZBuildingsEnergy efficiency
R2023-185Urgently identify and address problems with ECO4, ensuring that the rules of the schemes are realistic, and the scheme delivers the targeted rate of energy efficiency installations. 2023DESNZBuildingsEnergy efficiency
R2022-107Outline a comprehensive vision to leverage private financing for the retrofit of UK homes and businesses. Plans should be designed to operate in tandem with the other enablers needed to unlock home retrofit at scale, such as better buildings data and public engagement. Financial levers to consider include green stamp duty, green mortgages, energy as a service, property-linked finance, and using the UKIB to de-risk retail investment into home retrofit.2022HMTDESNZBuildingsFinance
R2023-189Respond to the 2020 consultation ‘Improving home energy performance through lenders’ by finalising and implementing plans to incentivise lenders to improve the energy efficiency of mortgaged properties.2023DESNZBuildingsFinance
R2022-078Ensure adequate targets and public funding commitments for decarbonisation in fuel-poor homes, to reduce energy bills and help meet climate targets.2022DESNZHMTBuildingsFuel-poor homes
R2022-080Publish plans to improve the targeting of support for fuel poor households to retrofit their homes, including through clear steps and timelines to facilitate data sharing between Government departments.2023DESNZDWP; HMRCBuildingsFuel-poor homes
R2022-106Recognising that the transition needs to scale up over this decade and that stable funding provides certainty to households, businesses, and public bodies, strongly and credibly signal that the Boiler Upgrade Scheme, Home Upgrade Grant, Local Authority Delivery Scheme, Social Housing Decarbonisation Fund, Energy Company Obligation and public sector decarbonisation will continue to be fully funded as required beyond the spending review period.2022HMTDESNZBuildingsFunding
R2022-079Implement legislation for heat network zoning in England and Wales this parliamentary session and provide Ofgem with powers to regulate heat networks.H1 2023DESNZBuildingsHeat networks
R2022-081Publish targets for low-carbon heat networks which explicitly set out their contribution to decarbonising heat, outline plans for converting existing heat networks to low-carbon, and ensure that new heat networks are low-carbon from the start.H1 2023DESNZBuildingsHeat networks
R2023-188Consider the case for setting a 2033 date (rather than 2035) for prohibiting replacement gas boilers in residential and commercial buildings. Set out a timetable for implementing regulations, taking into consideration the benefits of providing early policy certainty. H1 2024DESNZBuildingsLow-carbon heat
R2023-178Ensure that necessary legislation and regulations are in place to commence obligations on boiler manufacturers under the Clean Heat Market Mechanism.2023DESNZBuildingsLow-carbon heat
R2023-194Increase policy and funding support for hybrid heating systems to help consumers access them as bridging options where a direct switch to a heat pump or other form of electrical heat is not currently feasible, with a view to helping households transition to technologies which provide 100% low-carbon heat.2024DESNZBuildingsLow-carbon heat
R2023-193Launch a UK-wide multi-year campaign to improve the public’s confidence in and understanding of the coming transition for heat. The goals of this campaign should be to provide assurances and combat misinformation, and raise awareness of the schemes and policies which may help households and businesses. This campaign should encourage households and businesses to plan ahead, providing detail on when policy changes will come and how they will affect consumers. It should also be designed and implemented alongside wider improvements to information for consumers, such as the Government’s One-stop-show advice service, EPC reform and Green Building passports.2024DESNZBuildingsLow-carbon heat
R2023-181Monitor the impact of the Clean Heat Market Mechanism and evaluate its effects on deployment of heat pumps and development of supply chains. Develop contingency plans for other interventions should progress prove insufficient, and develop further options for incentivising uptake of heat pumps beyond the lifetime of the Market Mechanism.H1 2025DESNZBuildingsLow-carbon heat
R2022-063Reform energy markets to ensure that heat pumps are cheaper to run than gas boilers, through removing market distortions (whereby policy costs are primarily added to electricity bills), reviewing the scope of carbon pricing, and wider improvements to pricing mechanisms in the electricity market. Ensure that distributional impacts of reforms are carefully considered and appropriately addressed.2022DESNZHMTBuildingsLow-carbon heat
R2022-094Consult on a full technical specification for the Future Buildings Standard in 2023. Ensure that the new standards are implemented by 2025, and will deliver new buildings which are resilient to climate change impacts, with ultra-high energy efficiency standards and low-carbon heating.2023DLUHCDESNZBuildingsNew buildings
R2022-092Consult on a full technical specification for the Future Homes Standard in 2023. Ensure that the new standards are implemented by 2025, and will deliver new buildings which are resilient to climate change impacts, with ultra-high energy efficiency standards and low-carbon heating. Define clear transitional arrangements which will require any buildings which have not meaningfully commenced on site within a year of the implementation date to meet the new standards.2023DLUHCDESNZBuildingsNew buildings
R2022-093Ensure that Building Regulations for homes created through a material change of use to an existing building require low-carbon heating and mitigation of overheating. Consider imposing a whole-building energy and emissions standard for such homes.2023DLUHCDESNZBuildingsNew buildings
R2023-186Develop energy-related products policies in time to enable implementation by 2025. This should include developing and consulting on policies to decarbonise commercial catering equipment, domestic cooking appliances and garden machinery.H1 2024DESNZBuildingsProducts policies
R2022-082Publish a monitoring framework for tracking delivery of the Heat and Buildings Strategy, setting out how key indicators of progress will be tracked and published. Indicators should include forward tracking of supply chain build-up in key areas, including heat pumps, heat networks, and energy efficiency.2023DESNZBuildingsProgress monitoring and data
R2022-087Ensure that public-sector organisations (including those not captured by Greening Government Commitments) have the resources required to reduce energy use and emissions from their buildings in line with Government targets. Monitor progress across the public sector, enabling organisations which are underperforming to be identified and put measures in place to help those organisations which are failing to meet targets. 2023CO & Number 10DESNZ; DefraBuildingsPublic buildings
R2022-066Increase the multi-year funding commitments for decarbonisation in public buildings up until 2025 to match the Government's ambition for public-sector decarbonisation and commit to continuing similar levels of funding beyond 2025. H1 2023HMTDESNZBuildingsPublic buildings
R2023-179Continue developing the Government’s energy advice service, to provide a comprehensive service to provide households and businesses with advice, access to government schemes, and connect them with trusted suppliers. Refine the service to avoid recommending measures that have already been installed (such as solar panels and heating controls). Consider including information on the benefits of developing a home retrofit and renovation strategy and obtaining professional advice (such as from a retrofit assessor/designer or architect).H1 2024DESNZBuildingsPublic engagement
R2023-180Ensure that the Government’s energy advice service and funding schemes (such as the Boiler Upgrade Scheme and Great British Insulation Scheme) are adequately publicised to ensure widespread take-up. Deliver strategies to signpost households to advice on energy efficiency and low carbon heating at potential trigger points such as buying a property, obtaining a mortgage, or undertaking home improvements. Deliver strategies to target appropriate advice at hard to reach groups and for difficult to treat properties.H1 2024DESNZBuildingsPublic engagement
R2022-069Monitor and publish data on the reach and effectiveness of the Government's energy advice service, ensuring the information offer to households on required changes to their homes is continuously improved in line with these findings, and results in genuine carbon savings.OngoingDESNZDLUHCBuildingsPublic engagement
R2023-184Provide publicly visible Government support to the hydrogen village trials. Assist local authorities in their role, help to address public concerns and deliver community backing for the trials, including through direct involvement in public engagement if requested.2023DESNZBuildingsPublic engagement
R2022-095Implement improvements to the Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) and Reduced Data SAP (RdSAP) methodologies to ensure they accurately model performance, drive deployment of the necessary energy efficiency and low-carbon heat measures, and also address overheating, ventilation, and moisture-risk. This should be done in coordination with Devolved Administrations.H1 2023DLUHCDESNZ; Scotland; Wales; N. IrelandBuildingsStandards and enforcement
R2022-096Publish plans to enhance compliance with Building Regulations and minimum EPC requirements, including consideration of additional measures to monitor compliance of competent persons, approved inspectors, EPC assessors and landlords, and providing local authorities with sufficient resources to monitor and enforce compliance with standards.H1 2023DLUHCDESNZ; HMTBuildingsStandards and enforcement
R2023-183Reform domestic EPC metrics to make them better suited to informing consumers and delivering policy, taking into account the recommendations made by the CCC in its letter on 2 February 2023.2023DLUHCScotlandBuildingsStandards and enforcement
R2023-182Urgently update the 'reduced data' Standard Assessment Procedure (RdSAP) to ensure that current emissions factors are used in calculating the Environmental Impact Rating (EIR). Take further steps to improve the reliability of domestic Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) including: better training and oversight of EPC assessors; reducing reliance on default values in RdSAP; improvements to RdSAP; improvements to the digital presentation of EPC data; and storage and reuse of input data.H1 2024DLUHCDESNZBuildingsStandards and enforcement
R2022-070Clearly set out how plans to grow and upskill the workforce will support the Government’s pathways for low-carbon heat and energy efficiency and fill the skills gap identified in the Heat and Buildings Strategy.2022DESNZDfE; DWP; DLUHC; Home OfficeBuildingsWorkers and skills
R2022-112Develop and implement plans to make all public sector buildings and vehicle fleets within the department’s remit zero-carbon in the long term, switching to ultra-low emissions vehicles by 2030 and halving emissions from public buildings by 2032.H1 2023DLUHCBuildings; Surface transportGovernment estate
R2022-115Develop and implement plans to make all public sector buildings and vehicle fleets within the department’s remit zero-carbon in the long term, switching to ultra-low emissions vehicles by 2030 and halving emissions from public buildings by 2032.H1 2023MoDBuildings; Surface transportGovernment estate
R2022-116Publish MoJ’s Net Zero Carbon Strategy. The strategy should include clear pathways for reaching Greening the Government Commitment targets, switching to ultra-low emissions vehicles by 2030 and halving emissions from public buildings by 2032H1 2023MoJBuildings; Surface transportGovernment estate
R2022-113Publish the completed carbon and water management plan and the sustainability management plan that is under development. The plan should include clear pathways for reaching Greening the Government Commitment targets, switching to ultra-low emissions vehicles by 2030 and halving emissions from public buildings by 2032H1 2023DWPBuildings; Surface transportGovernment estate
R2022-114Building on findings from the Home Office’s studies into Net Zero technologies and EV chargepoints, publish a Net Zero carbon strategy for the Home Office. The strategy should include clear pathways for reaching Greening the Government Commitment targets, switching to ultra-low emissions vehicles by 2030 and halving emissions from public buildings by 2032.H1 2023Home OfficeBuildings; Surface transportStrategy
R2023-083Address key barriers preventing SMEs from effectively responding to Net Zero, specifically: requiring landlords to provide relevant energy-use information to tenants and empowering public institutions (such as Local Authorities and development banks) to provide more low-cost green finance to SMEs.H1 2024DESNZDBT; HMTCross-cuttingBusiness
R2023-167Build the international evidence base on the impacts on Corresponding Adjustments under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, including through supporting global initiatives such as VCMI to assess in what country contexts attaching a Corresponding Adjustment can add most value to project additionality and to overall global emissions reduction. H1 2024DESNZFCDO; HMTCross-cuttingBusiness
R2023-085Continue to collaborate with business through the Net Zero Business Investment Group and appoint a Net Zero champion for business to drive private sector action in the UK.2023DESNZDBTCross-cuttingBusiness
R2023-166Ensure all UK carbon credit codes follow a standardised approach to ensure confidence, consistency and robustness. Soil carbon should be a priority for this, but others under development (e.g. blue carbon and hedgerows) should be considered. OngoingDefraDESNZCross-cuttingBusiness
R2023-172Government should set out its priorities for developing emerging Net Zero industries and technologies in the UK and use the Autumn Statement to put in place strong signals to stimulate their development and deploymentQ3 2023HMTDESNZCross-cuttingBusiness
R2023-084Implement without further delay key measures presented in the updated Green Finance Strategy, specifically: an internationally aligned Green Taxonomy, Solvency UK and a mechanism to track investment flows.H1 2024DESNZHMTCross-cuttingBusiness
R2023-163Improve the provision of guidance and information to SMEs to understand and respond to Net Zero. This should include: expanding the provision of tailored expert advice to SMEs to reduce their emissions - alongside more general resources such as the SME Climate Hub; and simplifying guidance and resources to inform carbon foot-printing - including establishing a national repository for SMEs and partners to access standardised emissions data.H1 2024DESNZDBTCross-cuttingBusiness
R2023-164Introduce legal requirements without delay on large private and public companies to report against the Transition Plan framework in full, endorse the ISSB standard and set out how firms transition plans will be assessed for credibility and compatibility with the UK's climate targets.H1 2024DESNZDBT; HMTCross-cuttingBusiness
R2023-082Strengthen requirements for suppliers to demonstrate suitable Net Zero targets, plans and actions as part of forthcoming changes to Public Procurement. This includes incorporating Net Zero criteria within procurement contracts, broadening the scope of contracts covered by requirements beyond the current £5 million threshold and introduce metrics to monitor the emissions-performance of key suppliers and contracts.H1 2024DESNZDBT; HMT; Cabinet OfficeCross-cuttingBusiness
R2023-091Publish a detailed timeline specifying each stage of the process of CCS development for Tracks 1 and 2 of the CCUS Cluster Sequencing Programme from now through to first capture and storage of CO2 in each cluster and sector, including completion of engineering design, contracts and permitting, construction and commissioning, and publish a plan of how the Government will ensure this timeline aligns with their planned first capture dates for each cluster and sector.Q1 2024DESNZCross-cuttingCCS
R2022-168The Government should outline the UK's future ambitions on reducing consumption emissions. Q1 2023DefraDESNZCross-cuttingConsumption emissions
R2022-196Work with Government departments to fill the data gaps identified by CCC in the Monitoring Framework document accompanying this report.OngoingONSCross-cuttingData
R2023-059Work with other departments and the ONS to fill the data gaps identified in the CCC’s Monitoring Framework (www.theccc.org.uk/publication/ccc-monitoring-framework), with a focus on those the CCC have flagged as high priority.OngoingDESNZONSCross-cuttingData
R2023-060Work with other departments and the ONS to fill the data gaps identified in the CCC’s Monitoring Framework (www.theccc.org.uk/publication/ccc-monitoring-framework), with a focus on those the CCC have flagged as high priority.OngoingDfTONSCross-cuttingData
R2023-177Build the evidence for and make transparent the climate impact assessments of major government budgets, spending decisions and spending reviews in coordination with the Office for Budget Responsibility.2023HMTDESNZCross-cuttingFair funding and affordability
R2023-170Develop an overall review of the market price of low-carbon technologies and develop tax and price incentives so that low-carbon options are affordable and cheaper than their high-carbon alternatives, and demand reduction measures are appropriately encouraged.2023HMTDESNZCross-cuttingFair funding and affordability
R2023-195In line with the Glasgow Climate Pact, commit to phasing out inefficient production subsidies for fossil fuels that lock-in financial resource towards oil and gas extraction, which could result in a breach of the UK's climate budgets or assets that may need to be stranded to comply.Q1 2024HMTDESNZCross-cuttingFair funding and affordability
R2023-174Alongside updates to the National Planning Policy Framework, provide clearer guidance on assessing carbon impacts, measuring environmental outcomes and evidence requirements for climate considerations in the definition of 'sustainability'.2023DLUHCCross-cuttingGovernance
R2023-154Create a process by which the insights, lessons learned and next steps identified by the Local Net Zero Forum are shared with all relevant authorities and fed back to central government departments.2023DESNZCross-cuttingGovernance
R2022-143Ensure that all policies, funding and delivery mechanisms are properly aligned to the pace of transition required and work together constructively towards Net Zero, for example through introduction of a Net Zero test.OngoingCO & Number 10DESNZ; HMT; Scotland; Wales; N. IrelandCross-cuttingGovernance
R2022-132Ensure that public bodies with a role in delivering Net Zero have a clear duty to facilitate this and work together. This should apply, for example, to Ofgem and the Future System Operator.OngoingDESNZCross-cuttingGovernance
R2023-151Establish a dedicated unit with specific responsibility for managing cross-departmental risks and dependencies, coordinating cross-cutting actions and holding departments to account for delivery. If the Government intends to achieve this through the establishment of the Department for Energy Security and Net Zero, then it must designate a sufficiently senior unit with dedicated responsibility for delivering this coordinating role and must embed coordination and accountability as key objectives within the department's Outcome Delivery Plan.2023DESNZCO and Number 10Cross-cuttingGovernance
R2022-144Extend the delivery of climate skills training across the Civil Service, wider public sector and local authorities. Consider what wider supporting skills (e.g. delivery, coordination, legal, financial) will be needed in the public sector to enable effective delivery of the transition to Net Zero and climate risk management.OngoingCO & Number 10DESNZ; Scotland; Wales; N. IrelandCross-cuttingGovernance
R2022-140Publish the Terms of Reference and membership list for the Local Net Zero Forum.2022DESNZCross-cuttingGovernance
R2023-152Review and improve processes for collaboration with the devolved administrations, including by working together to identify opportunities for synergies between UK and devolved delivery plans.OngoingCO & Number 10DESNZ; Scotland; Wales; N. IrelandCross-cuttingGovernance
R2023-153The Local Net Zero Forum must address the question of local government powers, capacity, skills and funding to identify gaps and barriers that could hinder the ability of local government to deliver the roles and responsibilities for delivery of Net Zero that the Forum agrees. This should be used to inform development of an evidence-based approach to clearer, simpler and longer-term funding and resourcing of local authority delivery of Net Zero. Q1 2024DESNZDLUHC; HMTCross-cuttingGovernance
R2022-118The Local Net Zero Forum, through its 'roles and responsibilities' subgroup, should develop an agreed framework setting out what aspects of Net Zero central and local government are responsible for and how these will be coordinated. This should be circulated around local authorities and other relevant stakeholders to enable input from those not involved with the Forum. 2022DESNZDLUHC; Scotland; Wales; N. IrelandCross-cuttingGovernance
R2022-173Deliver climate policy that also has health benefits, such as active travel, access to green spaces, air quality, better buildings and healthier diets. This could be done by reviewing ways in which DHSC public guidelines could integrate messages that strengthen and make more evident the co-benefits of good nutrition and exercise for both health and for the environment.OngoingDHSCCross-cuttingHealth
R2022-176Publicly commit to providing additional, ringfenced funding to NHS England to fund the entirety of the delivery of its Net Zero plan.Q1 2023DHSCCross-cuttingHealth
R2023-058The Government's annual reporting on progress on progress towards Net Zero should be improved by: (1) explicitly comparing historical data against Government milestones and clearly stating where areas are on or off track, which reports to date have not done; (2) enhancing the suite of indicators tracked by drawing on the CCC's Monitoring Framework; and (3) making this accessible to the public, for example by leveraging the existing cross-government data portal (climate-change.data.gov.uk), as recommended in the Skidmore Review. Progress on addressing climate change should be presented with a level of clarity comparable with the COVID-19 pandemic (coronavirus.data.gov.uk).Q1 2024DESNZONSCross-cuttingMonitoring
R2023-161Collect further information on societal attitudes in relation to green choices and Net Zero policies via surveys and public dialogue activities. This should include extending questions about everyday behaviours and perceived impact of behaviours assessed in the BEIS Public Attitude Tracker to behaviours around reducing air travel and changing diets. In addition, the government should establish regular assessments of attitudes towards potential Net Zero policy options.OngoingDESNZCross-cuttingPublic engagement
R2022-130Embed participatory and deliberative methods in the Net Zero policy-making process, where appropriate, as a means of improving the design of, the acceptability of, and public support for, new policies. Embed key pillars of behavioural science into policies that make green choices easier, ensuring these methods are coordinated across departments.OngoingDESNZCross-cuttingPublic engagement
R2022-139Publish a public engagement strategy that sets out a clear long-term vision of how to engage people and businesses in delivering Net Zero and climate change adaptation, with the aim to develop and maintain support for Net Zero policies, especially where these require a high pace of change and/or highly visible technological change. It should include public communications plans to inform key audiences about the important changes required to deliver Net Zero and adapt to climate change, building understanding of the associated timelines, benefits (including co-benefits) and costs, and impacts on fairness and accessibility. Communications should be designed with the UK's diverse communities in mind. 2022DESNZDefraCross-cuttingPublic engagement
R2023-160Publish new guidance for government departments for improved targetting of polices aimed at changing behaviours in order to deliver Net Zero and effectively adapt to climate change. This guidance should direct all departments to ensure that the design and promotion of new and existing policies which aim to create behavioural change are targeted at specific 'moments of change/windows of opportunity'. These should be based on well-understood trigger points, such as when individuals change house, job or tenancy, remortgage, or engage in home improvements.OngoingDESNZDefraCross-cuttingPublic engagement
R2022-157The Government should increase investment in, and improve the collection and reporting of, consumption emissions data. This should include (a) establishing a short- and medium-term strategy to improve the underlying methodology to ensure it can capture key improvements in the carbon-intensity of imports (b) ensuring the resource to enable annual emissions statistics to be produced promptly each year.Q1 2024DefraONSCross-cuttingTrade and consumption emissions
R2023-056Where possible, publish an estimate of the additional abatement expected from the 'unquantified' plans listed in the Carbon Budget Delivery Plan (CBDP). For example, the emissions savings from transport modal shift proposals can be quantified, but were classified as unquantified in the CBDP. This is needed for a full and fair assessment of whether the Government's would achieve targets.Q1 2024DESNZCross-cuttingTransparency
R2023-173As part of the action plan for Net Zero skills, the Government should address barriers to employment and training opportunities, especially for under-represented demographics. A lack of diversity in these sectors limits the effective delivery of Net Zero and means people with these characteristics are not included in the opportunities Net Zero brings.Q1 2024DESNZDfE; DWP; DLUHC; Home OfficeCross-cuttingWorkers and skills
R2023-168As part of the Net Zero Skills Action Plan, publish a detailed roadmap of when relevant skills standards, frameworks, and qualifications to net zero will be developed or updated, including a delivery timeline.Q1 2024DESNZDfE; DWP; DLUHC; Home OfficeCross-cuttingWorkers and skills
R2023-169As part of the Net Zero Skills Action Plan, publish a strategy for workers and communities in those areas of the economy affected by industries that are expected to experience job losses as a result of the Net Zero transition, including by providing reskilling packages and tailored support to transition to alternative low-carbon sectors.Q1 2024DESNZDfE; DWP; DLUHC; Home OfficeCross-cuttingWorkers and skills
R2023-175Develop a public-private partnership with a clear definition of responsibilities to help to coordinate action across government, businesses, local authorities, education providers and workers, aiming to grow demand for workers in sectors that are key to the Net Zero transition.Q1 2024DESNZDfE; DWP; DLUHC; Home OfficeCross-cuttingWorkers and skills
R2022-254Finalise and deliver the Transport and Storage Regulatory Investment business model in 2022, consistent with the Government's ambition to establish at least two CCS transport and storage clusters in the mid-2020s. This will require promptly beginning the process of awarding permits and construction of the necessary infrastructure, to ensure that it is ready in time for deployment. Q1 2023DESNZCross-cutting; Industry; Engineered removals; Electricity supplyCCS
R2023-124Ensure that large-scale unabated biomass power plants are converted to BECCS as early as feasible, and are not given extended contracts to operate unabated at high load factors beyond 2027.2023DESNZElectricity supplyBioenergy; removals
R2023-139Through the Review of Electricity Market Arrangements, develop a strategy as soon as possible on market design for the medium to long term for a fully decarbonised, resilient electricity system in the 2030s and onwards. It is essential that in introducing changes to market arrangements, this is done in a way that does not deter the investment required to deliver a decarbonised system by 2035.2023DESNZElectricity supplyElectricity market design
R2023-125Ensure new gas plant are genuinely CCS- and / or hydrogen-ready as soon as possible and by 2025 at the latest.2025DESNZElectricity supplyFlexibility; CCS
R2023-130Publish the second transitional Centralised Strategic Network Plan, identifying the strategic investments required for a decarbonised and resilient electricity system in 2035 and delivery of Net Zero. Provide a robust treatment of uncertainty and sufficient, clear information for network development projects to be advanced in a timely manner. Ensure such projects are designed to be resilient to a changing climate.2023FSOElectricity supplyNetworks
R2022-206Identify and address potential key supply-chain bottlenecks for delivering up to 50 GW of offshore wind by 2030, including for investment in ports, adequate vessel capacity, manufacturing capability and floating wind. Take opportunities to link supply chain action to key decision points in offshore leasing and Contract for Difference auctions.2023DESNZElectricity supplySupply chains
R2023-127Develop a long-term cross-sectoral infrastructure strategy to adapt and build, respectively, the distribution of liquid and gaseous fuels, electricity, CO₂ and heat networks over the next decade. This should be led by DESNZ, drawing on the advice of the FSO and building on the findings of the forthcoming National Infrastructure Assessment. It must have a view to facilitating Net Zero while ensuring climate and weather resilience. A key aim should be to inform and narrow the decision space for future decisions on hydrogen use. 2025DESNZFSOElectricity supply; Fuel supply; Cross-cuttingNetworks; CCS; Governance
R2023-090Set out a long-term pathway for the UK ETS cap beyond 2030. 2023HMTDESNZEnergy supply; IndustryBusiness
R2023-106Finalise details of the power BECCS business model and launch a process for applications, ensuring consistency with other mechanisms such as the future engineered removals business model and any import standards outlined in the upcoming Biomass Strategy. 2023DESNZEngineered removalsBECCS
R2023-107Clarify whether engineered removals projects are eligible for support as part of the expansion of Track 1 clusters and set out a timeline for this expansion. 2023DESNZEngineered removalsCCS
R2022-211Work with the Interministerial Group for Net Zero, Energy and Climate Change to publish a joint position on the contribution of engineered removals and CCS to meeting UK-wide and DA targets to 2030.2023DESNZScotland; Wales; N. IrelandEngineered removalsGovernance
R2022-210Take legislative steps to allow for engineered removals to count towards achievement of UK carbon budgets.2023DESNZEngineered removalsLegislation
R2022-209Publish plans for monitoring, reporting and verification systems for engineered removals, noting the recommendations of the 2021 Task & Finish Group report and responses to the consultation on business models.Q1 2023DESNZEngineered removalsMRV
R2023-108Set out plans for soliciting public views on engineered removals. These plans should cover both education and engagement, ensuring that the public understand and are comfortable with the need for, benefits and potential risks of using these technologies to deliver Net Zero in the UK. 2024DESNZScotland; Wales; N. IrelandEngineered removalsPublic engagement
R2022-215Publicly set targets to end the use of Metered Dose Inhalers (MDIs) for all patients where alternatives can be used, by the mid-2020s, for all NHS and private healthcare services across the four nations of the UK. For patients where MDIs are necessary, end the use of MDIs that use propellant gases with 100 year Global Warming Potentials above 200 times that of carbon dioxide. Publish a plan setting out how the Government will meet these targets.Q1 2023DHSCF-gasesF-gas technology replacement
R2022-216Publish targets for the roll-out from now until 2037 of heat pumps that do not use F-gases as a refrigerant and set out how the Government plans to meet these targets.Q1 2023DESNZF-gasesF-gas technology replacement
R2022-212For the review of the F-gas Regulation happening this year, match or exceed any increase in ambition in EU F-gas Regulation, which is currently being reviewed.2022DefraF-gasesHFC regulation
R2022-213Pass legislation to reduce hydrofluorocarbon consumption by 85% by 2036 relative to 2011-2013.Q1 2023DefraF-gasesHFC regulation
R2022-214Publicly push for stronger international action on reducing F-gases under the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, including making it compatible with reaching Net Zero greenhouse gas emissions, encouraging more countries to ratify the Protocol and the Amendment, improving international monitoring of emissions, supporting the development of more robust estimates of emission metrics, and supporting the reduction of inhaler emissions in other countries' health services.Q1 2023DefraDHSCF-gasesInternational F-gas action
R2023-094Clear expectations should be set for any new oil and gas installations to electrify from the outset wherever viable, with platforms that cannot be immediately electrified being be built fully ‘electrification-ready’, and required to electrify as soon as possible. In line with our Sixth Carbon Budget advice, all new oil and gas platforms should have no direct emissions from operational energy use by 2027. If this is to be deliverable, swift and co-ordinated action will be required to address barriers, including around grid connections and consenting pathways. 2023NSTADESNZ; Ofgem; National Grid; Crown Estate; Crown Estate ScotlandFuel supplyFossil fuel supply
R2023-096Publish a delivery plan for the decarbonisation of oil and gas infrastructure, as part of, or alongside, an offshore industries integrated strategy. As recommended by the Skidmore review, Government should publish an offshore industries integrated strategy. As part of, or alongside this, a delivery plan should be published for the decarbonisation of oil and gas infrastructure, including a timetable for electrification and the phase-down of production. This should include more ambitious decarbonisation targets (well beyond the 50% target set out in the North Sea Transition Deal), roles and responsibilities, a plan for how decarbonisation will be regulated (e.g. minimum emission-intensity standards) and incentivised, how barriers will be addressed (including around connections, planning and consenting), and sequencing. 2024DESNZNSTA; Ofgem; Crown Estate; Crown Estate ScotlandFuel supplyFossil fuel supply
R2023-095Targets for methane flaring and venting should be strengthened and brought forward. For all facilities that will remain in operation post 2030, flaring and venting should only be permitted beyond 2025 when necessary for safety reasons. Q3 2023DESNZNSTA; Scotland; Wales; Environment Agency; Scottish Environment Protection Agency; Natural Resources WalesFuel supplyFossil fuel supply
R2023-098Accelerate the development of new business models for hydrogen transportation and storage infrastructure, with a view to keeping options open for larger scale hydrogen use by 2030.2023DESNZFuel supplyHydrogen supply
R2023-097Finalise funding mechanisms and allocate funding to support the development of 10 GW of low-carbon hydrogen production by 2030, ensuring these are designed to limit residual and upstream emissions, but also reflect hydrogen costs in a way that does not bias towards hydrogen where electrification is competitive.2023DESNZFuel supplyHydrogen supply
R2023-099Government should clarify its 2030 10 GW hydrogen production commitment in TWh/year and review whether this target is sufficient to meet future demands. Pending the outcome of this, strategic decisions may be needed around the scale of hydrogen use across sectors, or to adjust the level of the target.2023DESNZFuel supplyHydrogen supply
R2022-221Continue to take a global lead on further developing and improving UK and international biomass governance and sustainability criteria.OngoingDESNZDefraFuel supply; Engineered removalsBioenergy
R2022-222The Biomass Strategy needs to set out a best-use hierarchy for biomass and address the sustainability of the biomass supply (e.g. through high sustainability standards) required to support the rapid and sustainable deployment of BECCS (for power and biofuels). The Strategy should consider reducing reliance on imports by increasing domestic biomass supply as part of wider land-use changes (including diet change).2022DESNZDefraFuel supply; Engineered removalsBioenergy
R2023-157Undertake and publish research on trends and drivers of increased bioenergy use in industry over the past 15 years, to inform the Government's strategy on biomass use and the policy levers to incentivise best use.2023DESNZIndustryBioenergy
R2023-089Develop policies for decarbonising smaller industrial facilities, focused on those not covered by the UK ETS and/or not in an industrial cluster.
H1 2024DESNZIndustryBusiness
R2022-240Review, invest in, and initiate reform of industrial decarbonisation data collection and annual reporting to enable effective monitoring and evaluation, and policy implementation. This will require additional data collection and reporting to allow for effective tracking of energy efficiency, material efficiency, fuel switching, CCS, including progress developing these measures, and more holistic measurement on a product or whole lifecycle carbon basis. This reform should also be used as an opportunity to remove overlaps in reporting between existing schemes, which place an unnecessary burden on industry.Q1 2023DESNZONS; DefraIndustryData
R2023-078Introduce specific funding for research and development in industrial electrification.H1 2024DESNZIndustryElectrification
R2023-079Provide greater levels of funding for industrial electrification consistent with the support available for hydrogen and CCS. Funding should support the additional operational and capital costs of electrification in manufacturing.H1 2024DESNZIndustryElectrification
R2022-244Resolve the distortive disincentive against electrification of sites within the UK ETS caused by the design of Climate Change Agreement targets.2022DESNZIndustryElectrification
R2023-077Set out the Government’s approach to ensuring electricity networks have the capacity to meet increased demand from industry.H1 2024DESNZIndustryElectrification
R2023-076Take action to reduce the electricity costs of industrial users. This should start with greater exemptions for policy costs and network charges, but further measures will be needed to bring the electricity price closer to the gas price. H1 2024DESNZIndustryElectrification
R2023-087Confirm the long-term future (e.g. to 2040) of energy efficiency measures such as the Climate Change Agreement scheme and the Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme, or suitable replacements. Q1 2024DESNZIndustryEnergy efficiency
R2023-158Develop an indicator to track energy efficiency in industry. This might be done by measuring the energy-intensity of a fixed ‘basket’ of industrial products in a similar way to inflation indices. 2023DESNZIndustryEnergy efficiency
R2023-086Publish a strategy that sets out how the UK Government will achieve the abatement from industrial energy efficiency committed to in the Carbon Budget Delivery Plan.2023DESNZIndustryEnergy efficiency
R2022-246Continue to support innovation and demonstration of fuel switching and CCS technologies for end-use in manufacturing and construction, for example through grant funding and government-backed business models.OngoingDESNZIndustryInnovation
R2022-249Invest in a system (e.g. the National Materials Datahub) to track materials and products to share information on their quantity and quality for reuse and repurposing to retain materials at their highest value for as long as possible.Q1 2023ONSDESNZIndustryResource efficiency
R2022-247Design industrial decarbonisation policies in a way that supports and creates jobs, especially in regions with reliance on industrial jobs.OngoingDESNZDWPIndustryWorkers and skills
R2023-081Publish details of the £20 billion spending commitment for CCUS, including what it is to be spent on and how much is earmarked for different types of CCUS.Q3 2023DESNZIndustry CCS
R2022-250Set out a strategy for decarbonisation of off-road mobile machinery to set direction for the private sector. The strategy should include policy proposals, which could include the future of emissions standards, and a proposal for how best local authorities can bring off-road mobile machinery into their regulatory framework for construction within urban areas.Q1 2023DESNZDLUHC; DfT; DefraIndustry; Agriculture & land useOff-road mobile machinery
R2022-251Publish the timber policy roadmap setting out the policies needed to substantially increase the use of wood in construction.Q1 2023DefraIndustry; Buildings; Agriculture & land useMaterial Substitution
R2022-252Set out a plan to make an assessment of whole-life carbon and material use of public and private construction projects mandatory by 2025, to enable minimum standards to be set. The whole-life carbon assessment should be sought at the planning stage to enable efforts to reduce embodied carbon and materials. 2022DLUHCDfT; DESNZIndustry; Buildings; Surface transportResource efficiency
R2022-253Finalise the Industrial Carbon Capture (ICC) business model and deliver the first industrial carbon capture contracts to enable final investment decisions on the first ICC projects in H1 2023, consistent with the Government's ambition to deploy carbon capture in at least two clusters by the mid-2020s.2022DESNZIndustry; Engineered removalsCCS
R2023-109Develop alternative plans for meeting the 2030 NDC in case of delays to abatement and removals that rely on CCS. These plans should outline measures that can achieve emissions reductions in three years or less and include conditions for progress on CCS that will be used to determine whether these contingency measures are progressed. 2025DESNZIndustry; Engineered removals; Fuel supply; Waste; Electricity supplyCCS
R2022-256Publish a plan for distribution and storage of hydrogen outside clusters.Q1 2023DESNZIndustry; Fuel supplyHydrogen
R2022-261Publish a plan for CO₂ transport from dispersed sites before the end of 2022.2023DESNZIndustry; WasteCCS
R2023-132Develop detailed policies to achieve the level of abatement from resource efficiency set out in the Carbon Budget Delivery Plan, including measures to both reduce consumption and improve the resource efficiency of production.
2024DESNZDefraIndustry; WasteResource efficiency
R2023-133Publish details and timelines on the maximising resources and minimising waste programme in England.H1 2024DefraIndustry; WasteResource efficiency
R2022-262Set the 'Resource efficiency and waste reduction’ target(s), enabled by the new Environment Act powers, in a way that drives the delivery of emissions abatement from resource efficiency set out in the Resources and Waste Strategy and the Net Zero Strategy. This should recognise the role that raw material extraction and the design, longevity and reuse of materials and products can play in reducing the impacts of new product demand, while realising potential co-benefits.Q1 2023DefraIndustry; WasteResource efficiency
R2022-235Continue to deliver a broadly 50/50 split between adaptation and mitigation spend under UK International Climate Finance, looking for opportunities that advance both outcomes. OngoingFCDODESNZInternationalClimate finance
R2022-236Follow up on commitment to restore UK Official Development Assistance to 0.7% of Gross National Income once the underlying debt to GDP ratio will be falling and the UK will not be borrowing to finance day-to-day spending (now expected by the OBR in 2023/24). Do not introduce additional conditions relating to macroeconomic and fiscal uncertainty.OngoingHMTFCDOInternationalClimate finance
R2023-114Produce a Written Ministerial Statement in advance of COP28 outlining the UK's priorities for the summit and for the conclusion of the Global Stocktake. 2024DESNZFCDOInternationalCOP28
R2023-110The UK should announce intent to withdraw from the Energy Charter Treaty given the insufficient reach of the reforms secured in 2022, the risks associated with remaining in the Treaty and the bargaining power that could be associated with a critical mass of exiting parties. 2024DESNZFCDOInternationalEnergy Charter Treaty
R2023-113Assess and transparently communicate the impact that reductions in the amount of ODA available for international spending have had on international mitigation, adaptation and nature programming, setting out contingency plans for ICF programming to cover the eventuality that similar cuts are made in the next financial year. H1 2024FCDOInternationalODA
R2023-115Building on the high-level intention expressed in the 2030 Strategic Framework, the Government should produce detailed, high-ambition climate and nature trade principles that commit to: protecting the UK's right to regulate to achieve its Net Zero and Paris Agreement commitments; minimum environmental standards for imports; tariff-free trade for environmental goods; taking steps to eliminating inefficient fossil fuel subsidies and requiring credible Net Zero targets and plans from any FTA partners.2024DBTDESNZInternationalTrade
R2022-227Conduct a comprehensive public engagement and consultation process on the target level and delivery of the NDC for emissions reductions to 2035 submitted in 2025. 2024DESNZInternationalUK NDC
R2022-230Outline governance and accountability structures for tracking progress against the 2030 NDC target and future UK NDCs, noting that the UK NDC is not in scope of the Climate Change Act (2008) and the Carbon Budgets framework and is therefore not directly accountable to Parliament.2022DESNZInternationalUK NDC
R2022-229Set out plans for reducing domestic methane emissions in line with the collective aims of the Global Methane Pledge (a reduction in UK methane emissions of at least 30% from 2020 levels by 2030) and announce an intention to set a longer-term pathway for these emissions in 2023. These plans for contributing to the Global Methane Pledge should be included in the enhanced 2030 NDC the UK resubmits in 2022 for COP27.2022DESNZDefraInternationalUK pledges and commitments
R2022-237Set out the Government's approach to domestically achieving aims of priority sectoral COP26 Pledges before COP28.2023DESNZCO and Number 10; Defra; DfT; FCDO; DBTInternational; Cross-cuttingStrategy
R2022-265Build upon the proposals for the UK Emissions Trading Scheme and the UK MRV regulations to explore options for an activity-based measure of UK shipping emissions. This should include exploring the benefits of changing the emissions accounting approach for international shipping, to ensure that a fair share of emissions for voyages to and from the UK are captured within the UK's inventory even if vessels refuel in other jurisdictions.2023DfTDESNZShippingDemand
R2022-264Consider how to avoid the extension of the UK Emissions Trading Scheme to shipping causing displacement of activity to higher-carbon alternative modes (e.g. road freight).2022DESNZDfTShippingDemand
R2022-270Publish the outcome of the Course to Zero consultation. This should aim to set an ambitious trajectory to Net Zero for the domestic maritime sector.2022DfTShippingDemand; Low-carbon fuel
R2022-263Take a leadership role in pushing for inclusion of a 2050 Net Zero target within the 2023 update of the International Maritime Organisation's initial greenhouse gas strategy.2023DfTCO and Number 10ShippingDemand; Low-carbon fuel
R2022-266Build upon the summary of responses to develop a plan on the use of shore power and electric recharging infrastructure at all of the UK's major ports. This should include identifying roles and responsibilities for delivery and providing support and incentives to drive investment.Q1 2023DfTShippingEfficiency and electrification
R2023-134Establish a Centre for Smart Shipping (CSmart) as promised in the Technology and Innovation in UK Maritime report (part of Maritime 2050 Route Map). The centre should increase the adoption of technology in the UK maritime sector and work on developing a UK legislative framework for autonomous vessels, incorporating the as yet unpublished results from their 'Future of transport regulatory review: maritime autonomy and remote operations' consultation which closed in November 2021. Any new framework for autonomous vessels should include consideration of low-carbon fuels and operations.2024DfTShippingEfficiency, zero-emission vessels and electrification
R2022-267Commit to the UK’s first clean maritime cluster(s) operating at commercial scale (supplying at least 2 TWh/year of zero-carbon fuels) by 2030 at the latest.2022DfTDESNZShippingLow-carbon fuel
R2022-271Continue to report on progress in identifying green shipping corridors and the actions to implement them, as agreed within the Clydebank Declaration. An annual report should be published ahead of COP28.2023DfTCO and Number 10ShippingLow-carbon fuel
R2022-268Embed the Course to Zero response into the next update of the Clean Maritime Plan. This should present a credible plan for how the trajectory to Net Zero will be delivered.2023DfTShippingLow-carbon fuel
R2023-135Provide support and incentives to drive private-sector investment in low-carbon maritime fuels, engine technologies, and storage facilities. For example, this should include support and incentives to better understand the viability of different low-carbon fuels such as the sustainability of supply and carbon emissions for methanol. These should enable low-carbon fuels to expand to 42% of total domestic shipping fuel use by 2035 to match the deployment assumptions in the CBDP.2024DfTShippingLow-carbon fuel
R2023-136In line with the terms of reference, the UK Shipbuilding Skills Taskforce (UKSST), UKSST should produce a Shipbuilding Skills Strategy with recommendations and a SMART action plan by June 2023, with implementation of actions taking place between June and December 2023 (as outlined in UKSST TOR). 2023DfEShippingSkills
R2023-150Restore the funding allocated for active travel at Spending Review 2021.Q1 2024HMTDfTSurface transportActive travel
R2023-148Conduct a systematic review of current and future road-building projects to assess their consistency with the Government's environmental goals. This should ensure that decisions do not lock in unsustainable levels of traffic growth and develop conditions (which can be included in the Roads Investment Strategy 3 process and beyond) that permit schemes to be taken forward only if they meaningfully support cost-effective delivery of Net Zero and climate adaptation.2023DfTSurface transportCar demand
R2023-149Publish guidance to local authorities on what should be covered in local transport plans to deliver on the priorities set out in the Transport Decarbonisation Plan. This should include consistent guidance on how to quantify the emissions reductions that these measures can be expected to deliver as well as long-term clarity on what funding streams will be available to implement plans.2023DfTDLUHCSurface transportCar demand
R2022-292Scope and develop options for addressing the fiscal risks from transport's decarbonisation pathway (e.g. road pricing).Q1 2023HMTSurface transportCar demand
R2023-147Increase the ambition of the proposed CO₂-intensity regulations for new non-zero-emission cars and vans, by ensuring that manufacturers are incentivised to reduce vehicle sizes and are not subject to perverse incentives that could restrict the availability of small EVs.2023DfTSurface transportConventional vehicle efficiency
R2023-141Set out an ambitious definition of 'significant zero-emission capability' to cover which cars and vans will be permitted to be sold between 2030-2035, ideally allowing only fully electric vehicles.2023DfTSurface transportConventional vehicle efficiency; Electric cars and vans
R2022-275Consult on regulations requiring EV batteries sold in the UK to be recyclable. These should be coordinated with requirements in other markets to ensure that batteries can be reliably recycled across jurisdictions.2022DBTDfTSurface transportElectric cars and vans
R2023-140Establish proactive monitoring mechanisms for delivery against the ZEV mandate, to enable early identification of areas where further supporting policy measures may be needed to address shortfall risks or harness opportunities to boost delivery.Q1 2024DfTScotland; Wales; N. IrelandSurface transportElectric cars and vans
R2023-142Work with supportive stakeholders to agree a definition of what a sustainable and ethical EV supply chain should look like, and investigate ways (e.g. certification) of requiring this for vehicles sold in the UK.Q1 2024DfTDBTSurface transportElectric cars and vans
R2022-277Continue to support widespread deployment of charging infrastructure, ensuring that deployment rates accelerate in line with the trajectory required to deliver a minimum of 300,000 public chargepoints by 2030.OngoingDfTDESNZ; OfgemSurface transportElectric vehicle charging infrastructure
R2022-279Enact legislation requiring better reliability, accessibility, interoperability and ease-of-use at public chargepoints, as committed to in the Government response to the consultation on the consumer experience at public chargepoints.Q1 2023DfTSurface transportElectric vehicle charging infrastructure
R2023-144Monitor reliability across all public chargepoints, beyond just the rapid network that will be covered by the 99% target, and consider how to intervene to increase this if it does not improve.2024DfTSurface transportElectric vehicle charging infrastructure
R2022-286Review and strengthen rapid charger rollout plans on the major road network out to 2035, to ensure that drivers have the confidence that they can find reliable, available chargepoints as EV uptake grows.OngoingDfTDESNZ; OfgemSurface transportElectric vehicle charging infrastructure
R2022-290Work with the freight industry to design and implement pilot schemes to explore approaches to reducing van and HGV usage in urban locations.2022DfTSurface transportFreight demand
R2022-282Prioritise delivery of a new, transparent public transport fare structure that offers more affordable and reliable travel, ensuring fairness in relation to more carbon-intensive choices, and a more interlinked public transport system between operators.Q1 2023DfTHMTSurface transportPublic transport
R2022-283Publish a comprehensive plan setting out how the Government's target of removing diesel passenger trains from the railway by 2040 and achieving a Net Zero rail network by 2050 or earlier will be achieved.2022DfTSurface transportPublic transport
R2023-145Once the ZEV mandate regulations for cars and vans are implemented, begin consulting on an appropriate regulatory mechanism for delivering the ZEV transition for heavy-duty vehicles including HGVs and buses.2024DfTSurface transportZero-emission HGVs and buses
R2023-146Produce an infrastructure strategy that sets out how the transition of heavy-duty vehicles to ZEVs will be enabled. The strategy should consider options for depot charging, en-route ultra-rapid charging and hydrogen refuelling infrastructure.2024DfTSurface transportZero-emission HGVs and buses
R2022-301Take action to reduce the cost of local public charging for drivers who do not have access to private off-street parking to make it more comparable to charging at home. This should include reducing VAT on residential public charging.Q1 2023DfTHMTSurface transport; Electricity supplyElectric vehicle charging infrastructure
R2023-143Work collaboratively with Ofgem, distribution network operators and local government to develop a clearer and simpler process for delivering new and upgraded connections to the electricity grid. This process should include consideration of local demand forecasts to allow planning ahead to avoid bottlenecks, considering demand for both public charging stations and electrification of van and HGV depots.Q1 2024DESNZOfgem; DfTSurface transport; Electricity supplyElectric vehicle charging infrastructure
R2022-314Clarify the future role of anaerobic digestion and composting in waste treatment and set out how emissions from these treatment methods will be reduced. We will assess whether this is included in either the forthcoming final Waste Prevention Programme or the Resources and Waste Strategy addendum.2023DefraWasteCross-cutting
R2022-302Publish a detailed plan to decarbonise the waste sector (including Energy from Waste and wastewater) in line with meeting the Sixth Carbon Budget and Net Zero. This should set out how policies are expected to deliver emissions reduction in the Waste sector, how these will be sufficiently funded and incentivised, how waste processing and treatment capacity aligns to emissions pathways and how efforts will be coordinated across the different nations and sectors.2023DefraDESNZ; Scotland; Wales; N. IrelandWasteCross-cutting
R2022-304Continue to develop plans for shifting towards an Energy from Waste (EfW) fleet fitted with CCS from the end of this decade. As part of this set out an assessment of potential viability of existing and future EfW sites for CCS and implications for decarbonising the sector.2023DESNZDefraWasteEnergy from Waste / Incineration
R2023-012Start reporting emissions from Energy from Waste (EfW) as a separate source within national greenhouse gas inventories.H1 2024DESNZScotland; Wales; N. IrelandWasteEnergy from Waste / Incineration
R2022-311Publish an assessment of residual waste treatment capacity needs through to 2050, consistent with meeting committed and prospective recycling and waste reduction targets, expected resource efficiency improvements and the stated goal to end the landfilling of biodegradable waste by 2028. The findings of this review should inform future incineration/EfW capacity decisions and consider the feasibility of phasing out waste exports by 2030.2022DefraWasteInfrastructure
R2022-312Review the National Planning Policy Statement for waste (not updated since 2014) to ensure it is fit to deliver the infrastructure needed to achieve recycling targets and support future residual waste needs and decarbonisation requirements.2023DefraDESNZWasteInfrastructure
R2022-308Formalise commitment to prevent key biodegradable waste streams (including municipal and non-municipal sources) from going to landfill by 2028 at the latest and clarify details of additional policies needed to achieve this.Q1 2023DefraWasteLandfill
R2022-313Set out how methane capture and oxidisation rates at landfill sites will be improved. We will assess whether this is included in either the forthcoming final Waste Prevention Programme or the Resources and Waste Strategy addendum.2023DefraWasteLandfill
R2022-305Clarify details of how the £295m capital funding for food waste collections announced in the Net Zero Strategy will be spent to prevent food waste from going to landfill. We will assess whether this is included in either the forthcoming final Waste Prevention Programme or the Resources and Waste Strategy addendum.2022DefraWasteLandfill and waste prevention
R2022-310Set out how incentives across the waste sector are appropriate for achieving dual aims of waste reduction and decarbonisation. This should consider pricing of waste management solutions as well as materials. We will assess whether this is included in either the forthcoming final Waste Prevention Programme or the Resources and Waste Strategy addendum.2023DefraHMTWasteMarket conditions
R2022-307Finalise plans to introduce mandatory business food-waste reporting so that it can be phased in from the beginning of 2024. Engage WRAP in providing or brokering consistent methods of measurement and associated data sets.Q1 2023DefraWasteWaste prevention
R2022-321Implement initial Extended Producer Responsibility, the Deposit Return Scheme and consistent collections of recycling and food waste in a coordinated way and without further delay and confirm that funds raised by EPR will be used to support recycling and waste prevention efforts. Consider how EPR can be improved in the future to specifically encourage re-use.Q1 2024DefraScotland; Wales; N. IrelandWasteWaste prevention
R2023-074Scrutinise the plans of water companies to ensure these include appropriate measures to reduce wastewater emissions in line with the Government pathway and sector targets, and set out the key measures being taken alongside performance against relevant KPIs on an annual basis.OngoingOfwatDefraWasteWastewater
R2022-319Set out an assessment of the behaviour changes needed to achieve targets for food-waste reduction, recycling and improved end user consumption. We will assess whether this is included in either the forthcoming final Waste Prevention Programme or the Resources and Waste Strategy addendum.Q1 2023DefraWaste; Agriculture & land useWaste prevention and public engagement
R2022-323Review the impact of the newly introduced Plastic Packaging Tax and consider opportunities to go further, including integrating an escalator on the price of the tax and the recycling threshold to which it applies.OngoingHMTDefraWaste; IndustryMarket conditions
R2022-320Finalise the Waste Prevention Programme, including by setting out details on additional actions needed to achieve committed recycling and waste reduction targets.2023DefraWaste; IndustryWaste prevention
R2022-322Set ambitious post-2035 recycling targets alongside possible policy options for delivering such targets, including increasing investment to deliver long-term infrastructure needs.2023DefraWaste; IndustryWaste prevention
R2022-406Provide detail on how post-CAP agricultural subsidies and schemes in Scotland will target funding and delivery for climate mitigation alongside wider environmental goals such as climate change adaptation and biodiversity.H1 2023Priority (Scotland)ScotlandAgriculture & land useCAP reform
R2022-043Provide detail on how post-CAP agricultural subsidies and schemes in Wales will target incentives and delivery for climate mitigation alongside wider environmental goals such as climate change adaptation and biodiversity.2022Priority (Wales)WalesAgriculture & land useCAP reform
R2023-034Urgently address the funding gap for new land management actions in the farmed landscape for the year 2024, between the Glastir Scheme ending in late 2023 and the new Sustainable Farming Scheme beginning in 2025, to ensure delivery does not lose momentum.Q3 2023Priority (Wales)WalesAgriculture & land useCAP reform
R2022-356Ensure that funding and incentives are set at the correct level to meet the Scottish Government afforestation target of 18,000 hectares per year by 2025OngoingPriority (Scotland)ScotlandAgriculture & land useForestry
R2023-054Implement a strategy to address non-financial barriers to achieve annual tree-planting rates of at least 4,500 hectares/year in Wales by 2030, rising to 7,500/year by 2035.H1 2024Priority (Wales)WalesAgriculture & land useForestry
R2023-067Northern Ireland should formalise its 2021 - 2040 draft peatland strategy. This should include policy and delivery mechanisms to conserve and restore Northern Irish peat soils under both land and agricultural use.2024Priority (Northern Ireland)N. IrelandAgriculture & land usePeatlands
R2022-348The Scottish Government should Implement the Air Departure Tax (ADT) as soon as possible. Once implemented, use the tax to address price imbalances between aviation and alternative, lower-emissions forms of surface transport (e.g. rail) to encourage modal shift. Also consider other policy levers, such as information provision, to encourage a reduction in the number of flights taken.2023Priority (Scotland)ScotlandAviationAviation demand
R2023-039Develop a detailed plan for decarbonising buildings and reaching Net Zero targets, incorporating data from Local Area Energy Plans. The plan should include estimates of investment requirements and yearly targets for deployment of low carbon heating and energy efficiency measures. It should identify policy areas which are under Welsh Government control and those which require coordination with the UK Government.2024Priority (Wales)WalesUKBuildingsBuildings decarbonisation
R2023-112Fully assess the level of investment required to decarbonise fuel poor homes and make long-term plans for delivering the funding required.H1 2024Priority (Wales)WalesBuildingsFuel poor homes
R2022-384Consult on and finalise plans for delivering energy efficiency improvements and low-carbon heating in non-residential buildings. These should include clear target dates for meeting standards. Consider the role of targets that look beyond EPCs to more reliable measures of performance and emissions reductions, and clarify whether Scotland will be part of the UK performance-based rating scheme for non-residential buildings.H1 2023Priority (Scotland)ScotlandBuildingsNon-residential buildings
R2022-388Publish the delayed monitoring and evaluation framework for the Heat in Buildings Strategy, or expand the set of indicators in the annual climate change plan monitoring reports. Include clear indicators for deployment of energy efficiency measures, heat pumps, and low-carbon district heating, across residential and non-residential buildings. Use the development of the framework to identify data gaps and make plans to address them. Track implementation and its costs and use this information in updates to the Strategy.2023Priority (Scotland)ScotlandBuildingsProgress monitoring and data
R2023-041Fully assess the level of investment required to decarbonise public buildings and make long-term plans for delivering the funding required.H1 2024Priority (Wales)WalesBuildingsPublic buildings
R2022-383Publish developed plans to deliver energy efficiency improvements and low-carbon heating in residential buildings, aligned with Scotland’s ambitious targets. This will require a combination of incentives and regulation, including using tenancy and ownership changes as trigger points for change. Policies should also factor in the UK Government’s proposals for a market-based mechanism for low-carbon heat. H1 2023Priority (Scotland)ScotlandBuildingsResidential buildings
R2023-040Fully assess the level of investment required to decarbonise social housing and make long-term plans for delivering the funding required. Evaluate the cost effectiveness of retrofitting social housing to reach an EPC ‘A’ rating, and review the proposed target.H1 2024Priority (Wales)WalesBuildingsResidential buildings
R2022-108Publish the Decarbonising Heat Consultation and follow on with a coherent, long-term strategy for heat and energy efficiency in Northern Ireland’s homes and other buildings; encompassing regulatory, policy and funding commitments to facilitate delivery.2023Priority (Northern Ireland)N. IrelandBuildingsStrategy
R2022-402Increase transparency around Government's expected pathways to Net Zero. This should involve publishing more details on the assumptions that underpin these pathways and how the abatement set out in the Scottish Climate Change Plan update will be achieved by planned policies, setting out the quantified abatement expected to be achieved by each policy.2023Priority (Scotland)ScotlandCross-cuttingDelivery
R2022-410In parallel with the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities, address the question of what aspects of Net Zero central and local government are responsible for and how these will be coordinated. As well as sharing local best practice, this should lead to a clearer shared understanding of roles and responsibilities which can be communicated across local government.2023Priority (Scotland)ScotlandDLUHC; Scotland; Wales; N. IrelandCross-cuttingGovernance
R2022-403Map out interdependencies between reserved and devolved powers and how they might impact decarbonisation in all economic sectors, and use the results to identify significant risks to the delivery of Net Zero and construct a plan to manage them.2023Priority (Scotland)ScotlandCross-cuttingGovernance
R2022-199Publish a transparent and quantified link between policies and milestones, and the emissions reduction they correspond to in the sectoral pathways set out in the Second Welsh Carbon Budget.2022Priority (Wales)WalesCross-cuttingGovernance
R2023-029Work with local authorities to develop an agreed framework of what aspects of Net Zero central and local government are responsible for and how these will be coordinated. This should lead to a clearer shared understanding of roles and responsibilities which can be communicated across local government.2023Priority (Wales)WalesCross-cuttingGovernance
R2023-131Work closely as part of a Minister-led infrastructure delivery group, and in conjunction with the new Electricity Networks Commissioner, to ensure enabling initiatives for energy infrastructure are taken forward at pace and necessary policy changes are implemented in Wales, to deliver a decarbonised and resilient power system by 2035. Wales's spatial planning regime should adequately balance local impacts on natural capital with the need for sufficient electricity network capacity, delivered in a timely fashion, to accommodate expansion of renewable electricity generation capacity in line with UK Government targets and Welsh Government ambition.2023Priority (Wales)WalesElectricity supplyNetworks; Renewables
R2023-027Continue to work with the UK Government on industrial decarbonisation in Wales, formally requesting some specific support measures, including for the adoption of CCUS and hydrogen in the South Wales Industrial Cluster. OngoingPriority (Wales)WalesIndustryBusiness
R2022-332Publish a detailed strategy, building on the Route Map consultation of 2022, setting out how the Scottish Government will achieve a 20% reduction in car-kilometres by 2030 and deliver 20-minute neighbourhoods. This should include both investment in more sustainable modes of travel and measures to reduce the attractiveness of driving.2023Priority (Scotland)ScotlandSurface transportCar demand
R2023-020Develop and publish a full delivery plan for how to realise the ambition of reducing per-person car demand by 10% by 2030. This should include consideration of how measures that limit car usage will interact with those that enable more sustainable modes.H1 2024Priority (Wales)WalesSurface transportCar demand
R2023-018Monitor EV uptake in Wales and assess whether there are opportunities for further policies and incentives to drive adoption forward more quickly than through the ZEV mandate alone. This should consider opportunities to maximise emissions savings and deliver co-benefits for Welsh people.OngoingPriority (Wales)WalesSurface transportElectric cars and vans
R2022-295Support the deployment of public chargepoints across Northern Ireland, to address the issue that Northern Ireland currently has the fewest EV chargepoints per capita of any of the UK nations.OngoingPriority (Northern Ireland)N. IrelandSurface transportElectric vehicle charging infrastructure
R2022-338Develop an implementation plan to deliver the Scottish Government's vision for the public EV charging network. This should ensure the EV transition works for all road users in Scotland and accelerates in line with EV uptake, delivering 6,000 chargepoints by 2026 and approximately 24,000 chargepoints by 2030.2023Priority (Scotland)ScotlandSurface transportElectric vehicle charging infrastructure
R2022-336Deliver the public transport fares review outlined in the Route Map. This should consider: prioritising delivery of a new, transparent fare structure that offers more affordable and reliable travel, ensuring fairness in relation to more carbon-intensive choices, and a more interlinked public transport system between operators.H1 2023Priority (Scotland)ScotlandSurface transportPublic transport
R2022-329Set out further detail on actions and implementation timelines to ensure all recommendations from the incineration review can be delivered. This should include explaining how the projected residual waste capacity gap in 2025 will be managed whilst ensuring commitments to end the landfilling of biodegradable waste are met.H1 2023Priority (Scotland)ScotlandWasteEnergy from Waste / Incineration
R2022-400Work with the UK Government to develop a policy and funding framework to retrofit existing EfW plants with CCS from the mid-2020s, and ensure any new EfW plants are all built ‘CCS-ready’.2023Priority (Scotland)ScotlandDESNZWasteEnergy from Waste / Incineration
R2022-315Publish an assessment of residual waste treatment capacity needs through to 2050, consistent with meeting committed and prospective recycling and waste reduction targets, expected resource efficiency improvements and ending the landfilling of biodegradable waste by 2028 at the latest. The findings of this review should inform future incineration/EfW capacity decisions and consider the feasibility of phasing out waste exports by 2030.2022Priority (Northern Ireland)N. IrelandWasteInfrastructure
R2023-004Set out policies or support to capture methane emissions from landfill sites, in addition to improving the monitoring of emissions.H1 2024Priority (Wales)WalesWasteLandfill
R2023-005Set out how Wales's pathway for reducing emissions in the waste sector will be achieved - including policies, funding/investment needs and provision, and any dependencies or implications for other UK nations. H1 2024Priority (Wales)WalesWasteStrategy
R2022-327Set ambitious recycling targets for 2030 and beyond, improving on the 70% target for 2025.H1 2024Priority (Wales)WalesWasteWaste prevention


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