In a previous study for BEIS, Element Energy and Jacobs considered the potential of fuel switching in industrial heating applications. The study covered just over half of fossil fuel use in manufacturing (120 TWh of a total 215 TWh). The Committee on Climate Change commissioned Element Energy to extend the study so that abatement of all manufacturing combustion emissions by fuel switching was considered. This study looked to extend the analysis in the BEIS report by:
- Including the abatement of emissions from internal fuels (produced from fossil fuel feedstocks as part of the manufacturing process and then combusted to produce heat);
- Combining technologies (e.g. considering the use of heat pumps in conjunction with hydrogen) to maximise fuel switching when individual technologies have substitution limits.
Consideration of abatement of internal fuel combustion emissions led to consideration of CCS in the analysis, as an option to enable industries using internal fuels to reach low emission. This document sets out the assumptions behind this analysis, which fed into the analysis for the CCC’s Net-Zero reports.
This supported the Net-Zero Technical report.